This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing and harvesting timber on a long production cycle (of ten years or more). Long production cycles use different production processes than short production cycles, which require more horticultural interventions prior to harvest, resulting in processes more similar to those found in the Crop production subsector. Consequently, Christmas tree production and other production involving production cycles of less than ten years, are classified to the Crop production subsector.
Industries in this subsector specialize in different stages of the production cycle. Reforestation requires production of seedlings in specialized nurseries. Timber production requires natural forests or suitable areas of land that are available for a long duration. The maturation time for timber depends upon the species of tree, the climatic conditions of the region, and the intended purpose of the timber. The harvesting of timber, except when done on an extremely small scale, requires specialized machinery unique to the industry. The gathering of forest products, such as gums, barks, balsam needles and Spanish moss, are also included in this subsector.